1) 10 Apples
2) 10 Oranges
3) 1 Bunch of bananas
4) Sieve/wire mesh
6) Weighing scale
9) pH sensor
10) Turbidity sensor
11) Dissolved oxygen probe
12) Nitrate ion-selective electrode
13) Calcium ion-selective electrode
14) Chloride ion-selective electrode
15) Ammonium ion-selective electrode
16) 4 bottles/small containers
17) 4 beakers
Refer to Fig. 1
Fig. 1. How to carry out experiment
1. Using a fruit peeler, peel the fruit skin
2. Place the fruit skin in a microwave for 10 minutes to dry it
3. Grind the dried fruit peel into fine powder using a blender
4. Sieve the powder
5. Measure the amount of dissolved oxygen, pH level, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate, chloride, calcium in a beaker of 100ml contaminated water using the respective electrodes
6. Mix in 50g of the fruit peel powder and agitate the mixture by stirring the beaker of water
7. Pour the mixture of powder and contaminated water through the filter
8. Pour the water back through the filter for 10 times
9. Measure the amount of dissolved oxygen, pH level, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate, chloride, calcium left in the beaker of water again
10. Repeat process with other fruit peels
2.4 Risk Assessment and Management
- Someone may slip on the fruit peels if left littered on the ground. All leftover fruit peels are to be cleared.
- Blender can be quite dangerous and we might injure ourselves in the process of using it. We will blend the fruit peels only when the blender is tightly secured in place and wash the blades of the blender slowly in order to prevent any accidents from happening.
- Someone may get burnt by the microwave if not used carefully. The microwave is to be turned off when we are placing in the peels and we will use mittens instead of our bare hands to take out the peels
- It is possible to cut ourselves when using the peeler. We should always be cautious when we are using the peeler.
2.5 Data Analysis
1) Tabulate the amount of dissolved oxygen, pH level, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate, chloride, calcium before and after the contaminated was pumped through the filter for an hour.
2) Generate a before and after grapH using the table of amounts.
3) From the grapH, analyze the data by comparing the results of the before and after filtration.
4) If the after results, the combination of all three peels, is the most significant, we will be able to see that our hypothesis is proven, among apple, orange and banana peels, apple peel will be the most effective in removing contaminants from the water.