Annex A - Annex A - Group Research Proposal (Science)

Names: Joel Teh, Itmam Azwad, Matthea Koh, Chua Tuan Jin
Class: S2-07    
Group Reference:  C
1. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[   ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum
[   ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography
[   ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals
[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene
[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  
[ x ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  
2. Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:
Title: An investigation on the efficiency of different fruit peel, apple, orange and banana, to filter water. In a bid to make clean water available at low cost, Mr Ramakrishna Mallampati, a PhD candidate at the National University of Singapore (NUS), experimented with water treatment techniques using materials that are easily available and came up with ways to purify water using the peels of apples and tomatoes. To improve on his research, we are investigating with the addition of orange and banana peels.
A. Question or Problem being addressed

     Can fruit peels remove contaminants from polluted water? If so, which fruit peel is the most effective in doing so?

The independent variable is the type of fruit peel used.
The dependent variable is the purity of water.

The constants are:
The source of water
The temperature of the surroundings
The humidity of the surroundings
The volume of water used
The amount of peel used

B. Goals / Expected Outcomes / Hypotheses
Apple, Orange and Banana peel will be able to remove contaminants from water. We predict that among apple, orange and banana peels, a combination of all three will be the most effective in removing contaminants from the water.
C. Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
Equipment list:
1) 10 Apples
2) 10 Oranges
3) 1 Bunch of bananas
4) Sieve
5) Blender
6) Weighing scale
7) Peeler
8) Microwave
9) pH sensor
10) Turbidity sensor
11) Dissolved oxygen probe
12) Nitrate ion-selective electrode
13) Calcium ion-selective electrode
14) Chloride ion-selective electrode
15) Ammonium ion-selective electrode
16) 4 bottles/small containers
17) 4 beakers


Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
1. Place the fruit skin in a microwave for 10 minutes to dry it
2. Grind the dried fruit peel into fine powder using a blender
3. Sieve the powder
4. Measure the amount of dissolved oxygen, ph level, Ammonium Nitrogen, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium in a beaker of 100ml contaminated water using the respective electrodes
5. Mix in 50g of the fruit peel powder and agitate the mixture by stirring the beaker of water
6. Pour the mixture of powder and contaminated water through the filter
7. Pour the water back through the filter for 10 times
8. Measure the amount of dissolved oxygen, ph level, Ammonium Nitrogen, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium left in the beaker of water again
9. Repeat process with other fruit peels

• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
- Someone may slip on the fruit peels if left littered on the ground. All leftover fruit peels are to be cleared.
- Blender can be quite dangerous and we might injure ourselves in the process of using it. We will blend the fruit peels only when the blender is tightly secured in place and wash the blades of the blender slowly in order to prevent any accidents from happening.
- Someone may get burnt by the microwave if not used carefully. The microwave is to be turned off when we are placing in the peels and we will use mittens instead of our bare hands to take out the peels.

Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
1) Tabulate the amount of dissolved oxygen, ph level, Ammonium Nitrogen, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium before and after the contaminated was pumped through the filter for an hour.
2) Generate a before and after graph using the table of amounts.
3) From the graph, analyze the data by comparing the results of the before and after filtration.
4) If the after results, the combination of all three peels, is the most significant, we will be able to see that our hypothesis is proven, among apple, orange and banana peels, a combination of all three will be the most effective in removing contaminants from the water.

D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.

Candace, R. (2012, March 19). Using banana peels to remove metals from polluted water. Retrieved July 22, 2013 from

Inderscience Publishers (2008, October 27). Orange Peel Can Help Clean Up Dirty Water. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2013, from­/releases/2008/10/081020093500.htm

Lauren. (n.d.). Pumpkin purifier: removal of toxic metals from water using curcurbita agricultural waste. Retrieved July 22, 2013 from

Marañón, E & Sastre, H. (1992). Preconcentration and removal of trace metals from water by apple waste. Retrieved July 22, 2013 from

National University of Singapore. (2013, July). Researchers developed world's first water treatment techniques using apple and tomato peels. Retrieved July 22, 2013 from

Stephen, M. (2011, January 2). Chemist discovers a non-prank use for banana peels. Retrieved July 22, 2013 from

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